Wind turbines change kinetic energy contained in the wind into mechanical energy; & this results in Mechanical Power for Generating an Electric Power.
There are no such thing as Wind Energy ; Wind Power; Wind Electricity. Wind is a source of Mechanical Power.
Electric Power Generation using a device called wind turbine is damaging to environment. Most of the damage happens during Engineering, Procurement, Fabrication, Manufacturing, Construction, Assembly, Installation, Commissioning, & Handover phases of wind turbine Electric Power Generating system.
Animals, wind and water. When civilization began, during the sixth millennium BC, the only available sources of power were animal: heavy tasks were performed by gangs of slaves, or by domestic animals. This division of labour was a prerequisite for the establishment of collective life.
The wind was the next source of power, at first used only for driving sailing vessels. Not until the tenth century AD, however, was the wind harnessed, by means of windmills, to mechanical tasks such as milling and sawing.
Water-wheels were invented earlier, probably in primitive form before the beginning of the Christian era. For centuries they remained man’s main source of mechanical power. But animals were slow and winds uncertain; water power was not always found in the right places. Particularly for mining, more concentrated, reliable and disposable sources of power were needed and urgently looked for throughout the Middle Ages.
The first is the bladed wheel. The earliest form was the water-wheel; later it appeared in the wind-mill, & finally as the steam or gas turbine or in the form of the rotary compressor.
A source of mechanical power must be reliable & flexible. It is for this reason that, though the winds are strong and cost nothing; we prefer to pay for fuel for our ships in order that they should “sail” with certainty, even when the wind is contrary or absent.
If you notice you will not see any of aircraft carriers being power by wind or solar panels. Do you know why? Because of poor availability; reliability; & maintainability as defined IEC 50 (191). So if wind & so called solar is not good enough for THEM. Why should they be good for schools, hospitals, factories, & homes!
Wind turbine production
The production of a device such as wind turbine requires inputs from all the production processes in the world &, through international trade.
For example, the foundation requires cement which has to be manufactured, produced & transported.
Foundation reinforcement bars requires fuel for steel production, & fuel for means of transporting steel bars to site.
The Turbine blades needs plastics as the raw material for the production of GRP as part of turbine blade, this consumes Oil as a feedstock & fuel for processing & manufacturing. Manufacturing of resin for the blade uses oil & the raw material is converted to resin using fuel. The resin is then transported for fabrication & manufacturing of blade wherever it might be in the world.
The above scenario repeats itself for every components in the 7 systems & sub-system in manufacturing & production of a wind turbine as shown in Table below:
Production of Wind Turbine Blade
Is this called Renewable Energy? Look at the industrial scale of using oil in fabrication, manufacturing, & transporting. Each phase with massive amount of Fuel Cost. this is not renewable energy this is waste of fuel.
The Production of Wind Turbine Tower
Most large wind turbines have tubular steel towers, manufactured in sections of 20-30 metres & flanges at either end , & bolted together on the site. Just think about the amount fossil fuel used on manufacturing tubular steel towers & how much fuel is used to transport them:
Are you still calling all the above Renewable Energy? This is wasting fuel like there is no tomorrow – This is no not renewable energy!
The Production of Wind Turbine Foundation & cement used
& What about fuel used for producing materials for all the sub systems as shown below, manufacturing them; & transporting them?
A wind turbine project
A wind turbine project life cycle consists of the following 13 phases:
- Installation ,
- Handover to Operation;
All the 13 phases would be absolutely impossible to achieve without burning fuel. Fuel used for making of materials, transportations, movement of personnel working on the job, lighting of offices etc. The wind turbine projects have high FUEL COST; & high Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) cost.
In return for al above wind turbine as a device for Electric Power Generation has love availability; reliability; maintainability as defined in IEC 50 (191).
The level of INHERENT UNCERTAINTY in wind Turbine Design
List of uncertainties in wind turbine design for Electric Power Generation:
Anemometer & uncertainty
Example uncertainty calculation of an anemometer
Offshore wind a conundrum
“Offshore wind can be considered as an incipient market, with only 1500 MW built up to the middle of the year 2009, and with most of the facilities built up to now since 1990 being experimental or pilot projects. Nowadays, offshore wind is not an economically feasible technology yet; it still requires in fact the technical and economical support by Public Administration Agencies for its development. The main offshore wind power development focus is in North Europe, where countries like the United Kingdom and Germany are pushing this technology, taking so the opportunity to push also their national industries.”
“Besides, some R&D efforts will have to be made regarding the marine hydrodynamics technologies (wave, tidal and current power) because of its short development up to now, looking to achieve a similar maturity as the wind energy; only so, these renewable sources will be able to take part of the electricity market in the future. Nevertheless, there is still a long way to cover.” Both from ~ Why offshore wind energy? M. Dolores Esteban, J. Javier Diez*, Jose S. López, Vicente Negro Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/Profesor Aranguren S/N, 28040 Madrid, Spain http://goo.gl/Ykn4dr
“The presence of the offshore substation has revealed the best solution as long as wind farm distance from shore is higher than 3 km. Furthermore, costs of larger wind farms have been evaluated. These investigations have put in evidence that convenience of transmission voltage level choice depends on size and distance.” ~ “Guidelines for assessment of investment cost for offshore wind generation” – M. Dicorato, G. Forte*, M. Pisani, M. Trovato DEE e Politecnico di Bari, via E. Orabona 4, 70125, Bari, Italy – 2011.
“Electrical power generated by wind energy converters does not lead to assured electricity supply, because of fluctuating wind conditions. For a save supply in the mix during the time of weak winds backup power plants are necessary. They are not included in the calculations of this study. Nevertheless, a further extension of the offshore wind energy improves the environmentally friendliness and sustainability of the energy mix. Besides this, the switch leads to an increasing requirement for energy storage, such as pumped storage power plants or compressed air energy storage with an additional influence on the environment. In the future reliable data will allow further calculations of projected commercial wind farms.” ~ “Life cycle assessment of the offshore wind farm alpha ventus” Hermann-Josef Wagner*, Christoph Baack, Timo Eickelkamp, Alexa Epe, Jessica Lohmann, Stefanie Troy Chair of Energy Systems and Economics (LEE), Ruhr-Universität Bochum1, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum, Germany – 21 March 2011