Climate Change, Electric Power, Energy

“Solar Power”, “Solar Energy” & “Solar Panel” all are sales gimmicks

Solar etymology:

Solar

According to the definition of “Power”, there is no such thing  “Solar Power”<!– [if IE 8]>//img.tfd.com/m/html5.js<![endif]–>

Definitions of “Power”:

Power definition.jpg

“Power” as a derivative of  “Work”:

Power as derivative

According to the definition of “Energy” there is no such thing as “Solar Energy” 

Definition of energy

Energy is a thermodynamics property

1stLaw

The First Law of Thermodynamics

3 concepts

According to definition of “panel” there is no such thing as “Solar Panel”

Document1

“Solar Power”, “Solar Energy” & “Solar Panel” all are  sales gimmick for manufactured Photovoltaic cell units using fossil fuels

What is a Photovoltaic cell (commonly and wrongly referred to as solar panels”)

A photovoltaic cell (PV cell) is a specialized semiconductor diode that changes visible light into direct current (DC). Some PV cells can also change infrared (IR) or ultraviolet (UV) radiation into the unidirectional flow of electric charge (DC current)

working of photovoltaic cell (PV cell) relies on Heat (thermal Energy) Transfer & Radiation

Radiation.jpg

Heat (thermal energy) Transfer is an important science in engineering

Heat transfer0.jpg

Heat Transfer.jpg

 

Any viable system for electric power generation has to satisfy four conditions:

4 condition for Power gneration.jpg

Using manufactured photovoltaic cell (PV cell) (manufacturing process uses fossil fuels) fails all four conditions stated above.

Photovoltaic cell (PV cell) manufacturing processes wholly & solely depends on fossil fuel http://goo.gl/DkEeIC

Processes used in production of Photovoltaic cell (wrongly referred to as solar panels) are wholly & solely dependent on using fossil fuels, & have hazardous toxic by-products which have to be disposed of safely.

A company like Qatar Solar Technologies (QSTec) can produce 8,000 tonnes per annum Polysilicon for export to the world disguised under false banner of renewable energy using processes listed below which use fossil fuels

Processes used for manufacturing Photovoltaic cell (PV cell) are:

a) Polysilicon Chemical Vapour Deposition –

http://goo.gl/GK986m

Trichlorosilane (TCS) synthesis http://goo.gl/14lOVn Purified trichlorosilane (TCS) production http://goo.gl/NA8Py5

Siemens reactor http://goo.gl/VRE3Ps

Polysilicon product handling http://goo.gl/gZJBpy Chemical Etching in Polysilicon production

http://goo.gl/UJFAfb

b) Vent Gas Recovery and Converter Polysilicon production

http://goo.gl/a1i6SA

c) Silicon Tetrachloride (STC) to TCS Polysilicon production

http://goo.gl/5MX9Gv

Polysilicon Process http://goo.gl/KOvDjA

PolySilicon Plant http://goo.gl/ib59x3

All the above URLs are the reference URL to show the extend of industrial operation

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Energy

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

All attempts to build the 100%-Efficient Engine (E.100) have failed, and it is now accepted that the task is an impossible one. This fact of nature is embodied in the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which may be expressed as:

It is impossible to cause an engine to operate in a (thermodynamic) cycle, in which the only interactions are positive work done on the surroundings and heat transfer from a system which remains at constant temperature

In symbols, the Law may be expressed as

Image

The above form of the Second Law is due to Max Planck (1897). The essential idea of the 2nd Law was first conceived by Sadi Carnot in 1824, that is to say well before the 1st Law was established. This one is given prominence because it most clearly shows the mechanical engineer & power generation specialist the obstacle they face.

The 2nd Law must not be taken merely as an expression of faintheartedness on the part of engine builders. The Law has many consequences. To disprove the 2nd Law, it would suffice to disprove just one of its corollaries. No single instance of disproof is on record; as a result, the Law is now regarded as among the most firmly established of all the laws of nature.

In practice, the “constant-temperature system” has one or other of two main forms. It may consist of a body of material which is sufficiently large for its temperature to be uninfluenced by the heat interaction with the engine; a large river, the atmosphere, or a well-stirred mixture of ice and water are examples. This kind of constant-temperature system is sometimes called a “reservoir”; this word is a metaphor, and represents a legacy from the caloric theory which taught that heat could be stored or contained in a body.

Alternatively, a constant-temperature system may be limited in extent but in communication with other systems which maintain the constancy of temperature; for example, the metal tubes of a boiler, though thin, are kept at constant temperature by radiation from the furnace.

Whereas the First Law states that heat and work are interchangeable, the Second Law states that complete conversion is possible only in one direction, namely from work into heat. In financial terms, work is a “freely convertible currency”; heat is not. It is for this reason that such care has been necessary to distinguish heat from work only with heat and work defined is the 2nd Law true as stated.

The directional implication of the Second Law just mentioned is illustrated as seen below:

Image

the entirely possible process on the left, which might for example represent Rumford’s cannon-boring experiment, cannot be reversed. The concept of reversibility will prove to be of great importance below

The 100-per-cent-efficient engine (E.100), is sometimes known as a perpetual-motion machine of the second kind (abbreviated to PMM2). A perpetual-motion machine of the first kind (PMM1) would be a contravener of the First Law: the system continuously produces work while isolated, as regards heat transfer, from its surroundings. the attached figure makes the point. Both are impossible as shown:

 

 

perpetual-motion

The Second Law is also the reason for excluding internal-combustion engines from the heat-engine class, instead of regarding them as heat engines in which “the heat is in chemical form”. For an engine can be constructed which converts into work the whole of the “chemical energy”. i.e. enthalpy change on complete isothermal reaction, of the fuel.

The Second Law is a blank statement that the dearest wish of the power-plant engineer is unattainable. Of course we cannot leave the matter there, but must go on to ask “Well, how near can we get?” to E 100. That is in answering this question, and looking for paths leading as closely as possible to the unattainable, that the thermodynamics has had to invent and use the concepts of reversibility. absolute temperature, & entropy.

 

 

 

 

 

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